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Horeb's Corners Support Information
Pedestrian Friendliness Bullet Point Sheet

”The physical organization of the region should be supported by a framework of transportation alternatives. Transit, pedestrian, and bicycle systems should maximize access and mobility throughout the region while reducing dependence on the automobile”
(Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

”We frequently look to Europe for inspiration on how to make public transit work in America. In fact, Europeans use transit only a bit more than Americans. What they do a lot more of every day is walk. By making our regions more walkable, we will take a huge step toward making them more livable, drivable, and friendly to bicycles and pedestrians” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“The main elements needed for better communities are clear. There should be a generous connected network of streets and sidewalks a network that allows pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists to move over many different routes, enjoying and learning from, not just tolerating, their surroundings” (Phillip Langdon, A Better Place to Live, 1994).

“I bring up this problem not merely to berate the anomalies of project planning again, but to indicate that frequent streets and short blocks are valuable because of the fabric of intricate cross-use that they permit among the users of a city neighborhood” (Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 1961).

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“Places like Portland emphasize small-scale solutions improving sidewalks to encourage the pedestrian, calming traffic to return control to neighborhoods and business districts, revising transit priorities to give buses an advantage over the car, and connecting streets so more of them lead to places rather than dead ends. In other words, we should design the road system to serve a variety of needs: to move people; to encourage compact, transit-oriented development on adjacent lands; and to serve pedestrians, bikes, transit, and cars” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

”Why are people so much friendlier or at least less sociopathic when they are walking? The answer may lie in Jonathan Rose’s observation that ‘there is a significant difference between running into someone while strolling down a street and running into someone when driving a car.

Given that most time in public is spent driving around in isolation chambers, it is no surprise that social critics are witnessing a decline in the civic arts of conversation, politics, and just simply getting along” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

“Research suggests that if provided with improved sidewalks and bikeways, and better connections for walking and cycling, people will indeed walk and bike more often. This shift would also reduce traffic congestion and improve air quality, and it could reduce pedestrian injuries and fatalities. A three-pronged attack on sedentary lifestyles, air quality, and pedestrian injuries could significantly improve public health” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

”People don’t like to walk where they don’t feel safe, nor do they like to walk where they feel uncomfortable, which is slightly different. While many factors contribute to the comfort of a place, the most significant is probably the degree of architectural enclosure the amount that it makes its inhabitants feel held within a space. The desire for enclosure stems from several sources, among them the fundamental human need for shelter, orientation, and territoriality, Whatever the cause, people are attracted to places with well-defined edges and limited openings, while they tend to flee places that lack clear definition or boundaries” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

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“Crosswalks should be provided at all signalized arterial intersections. Under-crossings or bridges designed for pedestrians and bicyclists are discouraged, unless necessary in already developed areas to solve critical access problems” (Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 1993).

”Neighborhood streets that provide wide sidewalks, street trees, and on-street parking increase pedestrian activity. People are more apt to want to walk or bicycle if the route provides safe, pleasant, shady sidewalks and bike lanes. Drivers are more apt to drive slower in areas with pedestrian-filled sidewalks, crosswalks, and convenient, on-street parking. Streets designed for pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers also encourage the casual meetings among neighbors that help form the bonds of community” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“Streets that once served vehicles and people equitably are now designed for the sole purpose of moving vehicles through them as quickly as possible. They have become, in effect, traffic sewers. No surprise, then, that they fail to sustain pedestrian life” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

“The conventional suburban layout, on the other hand, is the worst possible environment for pedestrian travel. Access between peoples’ homes and their destinations is seldom direct, and it usually requires travel through hostile environments such as major arterial streets and parking lots. In conventional suburban development, few if any frequent or typical trips are within walking distance…” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

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“Varied pedestrian paths encourage walking over driving, provide safe routes for children in a neighborhood, and enhance the draw of a commercial district” (“Transportation Tech Sheet: Pedestrian Paths”, Progress, November 1999).

“Streets should be safe, interesting and comfortable for pedestrians” (Peter Katz, The New Urbanism: Toward and Architecture of Community, 1994).

“Streets and squares should be safe, comfortable, and interesting to the pedestrian. Properly configured, they encourage walking and enable neighbors to know each other and protect their communities” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“Neighborhood streets of varying types are detailed to provide equitably for pedestrian comfort and for automobile movement. Slowing the automobile and increasing pedestrian activity encourages the casual meetings that form the bonds of community” (Peter Katz, The New Urbanism: Toward and Architecture of Community, 1994).

“People walk more when the streets connect destinations along logical routes. Planning for the pedestrian begins with the creation of an interconnected network of streets, midblock passages, alleys, pocket parks, and trails that provide lots of options for reaching any particular place. This network should direct people toward shops and services, and enhance the sense that walking is more convenient than driving and parking. Blocks should be small, so pedestrians can get across and around them quickly” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“The right-of-way details also matter greatly. Sidewalk widths, curbs, corner curb radii, lane width, on-street parking, trees, and lighting should encourage the pedestrian’s confident movement” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

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“Furthermore, parked cars buffer pedestrians from moving cars. This ‘armor’ effect makes pedestrians comfortable” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“Middleton Hills is a good example of a single neighborhood, sized around the measure of a five-minute walk from its edge to its center. The five-minute walk—or pedestrian shed—is roughly one-quarter mile in distance. It was conceptualized as a determinant of neighborhood size in classic 1929 New York City Regional Plan, but it has existed as an informal standard since the earliest cities, from Pompeii to Greenwich Village” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

“The highly connected grid is an ideal environment for walking, biking, and public transit because it provides direct connections between where people live and where they need to go. Walking and biking are pleasant because of the wide variety of street environments on different routes and the low levels of traffic on the streets” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“While travel lanes on old streets are often only nine feet wide or less, new streets are usually required to have twelve-foot lanes, which take longer for pedestrians to cross” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

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“Duany and Plater-Zyberk & Co. is a forceful advocate of platting neighborhoods with grid-like street patterns, as was common practice through the 1920’s. Street networks with frequent connections, they argue, ease traffic congestion by providing a choice of paths for any trip, yet tame cars by requiring frequent stops. Such networks make pedestrian and bicycle movement easier by slowing auto traffic and making trips shorter than in places with hierarchical street systems; combined with requirements for mixing land uses, they could produce communities in which walking is a realistic choice for most everyday trips” (Peter Katz, The New Urbanism: Toward and Architecture of Community, 1994).

“Under current standards, streets are allowed only to curve loosely, with the result that one finger on the steering wheel and one foot on the gas pedal are all that it takes that maneuver through a residential neighborhood. The intention is to provide greater safety by allowing drivers to see farther in front of them, but the result is that drivers feel comfortable driving at higher speeds, making walking all the more dangerous” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

“Many activities of daily living should occur within walking distance, allowing independence to those who do no drive, especially the elderly and young. Interconnected networks of streets should be designed to encourage walking, reduce the number and length of automobile trips, and conserve energy” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“In addition to narrow streets, another factor that contributes mightily to pedestrian perceptions of safety is on-street parallel parking. Parked cars create a highly effective steel barrier between the street and the sidewalk, so that walkers feel protected from moving traffic. They also slow traffic, because drivers perceive potential conflict with cars pulling in and out” (Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream, 2000).

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“Pedestrian routes should be located along or visible from all streets. They must provide clear, comfortable, and direct access to the core commercial area and transit stop. Primary pedestrian routes and bikeways should be bordered by residential fronts, public parks, plazas, or commercial uses. Where street connections are not feasible, short pedestrian paths can provide connections between residential and retail areas. Routes through parking lots or at the rear of residential developments should be avoided” (Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 1993).

“Maximizing choice and mobility in our communities starts with the pedestrian, because every transit trip begins and ends with walking.” (Congress for the New Urbanism, Charter for the New Urbanism, 2000).

“Pedestrian access is critical to the displacement of auto trips and to encourage as much transit use as possible” (Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 1993).

Smart Growth America commissioned a national poll to test public support for specific policies and acquired the following results: “The transportation choices were posed as tough choices and still yielded evidence of strong support for smarter growth. People were asked if they favored state funding of improved transit, even if it meant less money for new highways. Sixty percent said yes. A similar ‘trade-off’ question about providing pedestrian facilities for kids walking to school got 77 percent support” (“Greetings from Smart Growth America!” Progess, November 2000).

“As a transportation feature, a network of pedestrian pathways can add a great deal to a neighborhood at a very small capital cost” (“Transportation Tech Sheet: Pedestrian Paths”, Progress, November 1999).

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“TND streets are shared with pedestrians. While a network of streets is important for vehicular efficiency, networked, safe and convenient connections are of paramount importance to the pedestrian. For these reasons, all lots and sites have pedestrian connections. TND streets usually have sidewalks that are five or more feet in width along both sides of the street, except at the lowest densities or at the edge of the neighborhood” (ITE Transportation Engineers, Traditional Neighborhood Development: Street Design Guidelines, October 1999).

”Parallel parking is emphatically permitted along the curbs of all streets, except under the most extraordinary conditions. Parallel parking is desirable for two reasons; parked cars create a physical barrier and a psychological buffer that protects pedestrians on the sidewalk from moving vehicles;….Anyone who thinks parallel parking “ruins” a residential street should take a look at some of the most desirable real estate in America: Georgetown, Beacon Hill, Nob Hill, Alexandria, Charleston, Savannah, Annapolis, Princeton, Greenwhich Village, Marblehead. All permit parallel parking” (James Howard Kunstler, Home From Nowhere, 1996).

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